Manual Testing Interview Questions

Manual Testing Interview Questions


1. What Is Baseline Testing?

Baseline testing is the process of running a set of tests to capture performance information. Baseline testing use the information collected to made the changes in the application to improve performance and capabilities of the application. Baseline compares present performance of application with its own previous performance.

2. What Is Benchmark Testing?

Benchmarking testing is the process of comparing application performance with respect to industry standard which is given by some other organization. Benchmark informs us where our application stands with respect to others. Benchmark compares our application performance with other company’s application’s performance.

3. What Is Verification And Validation?

Verification: process of evaluating work-products of a development phase to determine whether they meet the specified requirements for that phase.

Validation: process of evaluating software during or at the end of the development process to determine whether it specified requirements.

Difference between Verification and Validation:

•Verification is Static testing where as Validations is Dynamic Testing.

•Verification takes place before validation.

•Verification evaluates plans, document, requirements and specification, where as Validation evaluates product.

•Verification inputs are checklist, issues list, walkthroughs and inspection, where as in Validation testing of actual product.

•Verification output is set of document, plans, specification and requirement documents where as in Validation actual product is output.

4. Explain Branch Coverage and Decision Coverage

•Branch Coverage is testing performed in order to ensure that every branch of the software is executed at least. To perform the Branch coverage testing we take the help of the Control Flow Graph.

•Decision coverage testing ensures that every decision taking statement is executed at least once.

•Both decision and branch coverage testing is done to ensure the tester that no branch and decision taking statement, will not lead to failure of the software.

•To Calculate Branch Coverage:

Branch Coverage = Tested Decision Outcomes / Total Decision Outcomes.

5. What Is Difference Between Retesting And Regression Testing?

•Retesting is done to verify defect fix previous in now working correctly where as regression is perform to check if the defect fix have not impacted other functionality that was working fine before doing changes in the code.

•Retesting is specific and is performed on the bug which is fixed where as in regression is not be always specific to any defect fix it is performed when any bug is fixed.

•Retesting concern with executing those test cases that are failed earlier where as regression concern with executing test cases that was passed in earlier builds.

•Retesting has higher priority over regression.

6. What Is Mutation Testing & When Can It Be Done?

Mutation testing is a performed to find out the defect in the program. It is performed to find put bugs in specific module or component of the application. Mutation testing is based on two assumptions:

Competent programmer hypothesis: according this hypothesis we suppose that program write the correct code of the program.

Coupling effect: according to this effect collection of different set of test data can also find large and complex bugs.

7. Explain Bug Leakage And Bug Release.

Bug Leakage: When customer or end user discovered a bug which can be detected by the testing team. Or when a bug is detected which can be detected in pervious build then this is called as Bug Leakage.

Bug release: is when a build is handed to testing team with knowing that defect is present in the release. The priority and severity of bug is low. It is done when customer want the application on the time. Customer can tolerate the bug in the released then the delay in getting the application and the cost involved in removing that bug. These bugs are mentioned in the Release Notes handed to client for the future improvement chances.

8. What Is Alpha And Beta Testing?

Alpha testing: is performed by the IN-House developers. After alpha testing the software is handed over to software QA team, for additional testing in an environment that is similar to the client environment.

Beta testing: beta testing becomes active. It is performed by end user. So that they can make sure that the product is bug free or working as per the requirement. IN-house developers and software QA team perform alpha testing. The public, a few select prospective customers or the general public performs beta testing.

9. What Is Monkey Testing?

Monkey testing is a type of Black Box Testing used mostly at the Unit Level. In this tester enter the data in any format and check the software is not crashing. In this testing we use Smart monkey and dumb monkey.

Smart monkeys are used for load and stress testing, they will help in finding the bugs. They are very expensive to develop. Dumb monkey, are important for basic testing. They help in finding those bugs which are having high severity. Dumb monkey are less expensive as compare to Smart monkeys.

Example: In phone number filed Symbols are entered.

10. What Is Test Driver And Test Stub?

•The Stub is called from the software component to be tested. It is used in top down approach.

•The driver calls a component to be tested. It is used in bottom up approach.

•Both test stub and test driver are dummy software components.

We need test stub and test driver because of following reason:

•Suppose we want to test the interface between modules A and B and we have developed only module A. So we cannot test module A but if a dummy module is prepare, using that we can test module A.

•Now module B cannot send or receive data from module A directly so, in these cases we have to transfer data from one module to another module by some external features. This external feature used is called Driver.

11. What Is Random Testing?

When tester performs testing of application by using random input from the input domain of the system, this is Random Testing.

Random testing involve following procedures:

•Selection of input domain.

•Randomly selecting any input from input domain.

•Using these test input testing of application is performed.

•The results are compared to the system specification. The test is a failure if any input leads to incorrect results, otherwise it is a success.

12. What Is Agile Testing?

Agile Testing means to quickly validation of the client requirements and make the application of good quality user interface. When the build is released to the testing team, testing of the application is started to find the bugs. As a Tester, we need to focus on the customer or end user requirements. We put the efforts to deliver the quality product in spite of short time frame which will further help in reducing the cost of development and test feedbacks will be implemented in the code which will avoid the defects coming from the end user.

13. What Is The Purpose Of Test Strategy?

We need Test Strategy for the following reasons:

1. To have a signed, sealed, and delivered document, where the document contains details about the testing methodology, test plan, and test cases.

2. Test strategy document tells us how the software product will be tested.

3. Test strategy document helps to review the test plan with the project team members.

4. It describes the roles, responsibilities and the resources required for the test and schedule.

5. When we create a test strategy document, we have to put into writing any testing issues requiring resolution.

The test strategy is decided first, before lower level decisions are made on the test plan, test design, and other testing issues.

14. Explain Bug Life Cycle.

•The bug is assigned to development project manager who will analyze the bug .He will check whether it is a valid defect. If not valid bug is rejected then status is REJECTED.

•If not, next the defect is checked whether it is in scope. When bug is not part of the current release .Such defects are POSTPONED

•Now, Tester checks whether a similar defect was raised earlier. If yes defect is assigned a status DUPLICATE

•When bug is assigned to developer. During this stage bug is assigned a status IN-PROGRESS

•Once code is fixed. Defect is assigned a status FIXED

•Next the tester will re-test the code. In case the test case passes the defect is CLOSED

•If the test case fails again the bug is RE-OPENED and assigned to the developer. That’s all to Bug Life Cycle.

15. What Is Error Guessing and Error Seeding?

Error Guessing is a test case design technique where the tester has to guess what faults might occur and to design the tests to represent them.

Error Seeding is the process of adding known faults intentionally in a program for the reason of monitoring the rate of detection & removal and also to estimate the number of faults remaining in the program.

16. Explain Compatibility Testing With An Example.

Compatibility testing is to evaluate the application compatibility with the computing environment like Operating System, Database, Browser compatibility, backwards compatibility, computing capacity of the Hardware Platform and compatibility of the Peripherals. Example, If Compatibility testing is done on a Game application, before installing a game on a computer, its compatibility is checked with the computer specification that whether it is compatible with the computer having that much of specification or not.

17. What Is Test Harness?

A test harness is a collection of software and test data required to test the application by running it in different testing condition like stress, load, data- driven, and monitoring its behavior and outputs. Test Harness contains two main parts:

•Test execution engine

•Test script repository

Automation testing is the use of a tool to control the execution of tests and compare the actual results with the expected results. It also involves the setting up of test pre-conditions.

18. Explain Statement Coverage.

Statement Coverage is a metric used in White Box Testing. Statement coverage is used to ensure that all the statement in the program code is executed at least once. The advantages of Statement Coverage are:

•Verifies that written code is correct.

•Measures the quality of code written.

•Determine the control flow of the program.

•To Calculate Statement Coverage:

•Statement Coverage = Statements Tested / Total No. of Statements.

19. What Are The Types Of Testing?

There are two types of testing:

•Static testing: Static testing is a technique used in the earlier phase of the development life cycle. The code error detection and execution of program is not concern in this type of testing. Also known as non-execution technique. The Verification of the product is performed in this testing technique like Code Reviews, Inspections; Walkthroughs are mostly done in this stage of testing.

•Dynamic testing: Dynamic Testing is concern with the execution of the software. This technique is used to test the dynamic behavior of the code. Most of the bugs are identified using this technique. These are the Validation activities. It uses different methodologies to perform testing like Unit Tests, Integration Tests, System Tests and Acceptance Testing, etc.

20. Explain User Acceptance Testing.

User Acceptance Testing (UAT) is performed by the end users on the applications before accepting the application.

Alpha testing: is performed by the IN-House developers. After alpha testing the software is handed for the Beta testing phase, for additional testing in an environment that is similar to the client environment.

Beta testing: is performed by the end user. So that they can make sure that the product is bug free or working as per the requirement. IN-house developers and software QA team perform alpha testing. The public, a few select prospective customers or the general public performs beta testing.

Gamma Testing: Gamma Testing is done when the software is ready for release with specified requirements. This testing is done directly by skipping all the in-house testing activities.

21. What Should Be Done After A Bug Is Found?

After finding the bug the first step is bug to be locked in bug report. Then this bug needs to be communicated and assigned to developers that can fix it. After the bug is fixes by the developer, fixes should be re-tested, and determinations made regarding requirements for regression testing to check that fixes didn't create problems elsewhere.

22. What If The Software Is So Buggy It Can't Really Be Tested At All?

In this situation is for the testers to go through the process of reporting of bugs with the focus being on critical bugs. Since this type of problem can severely affect schedules, and indicates deeper problems in the software development process project managers should be notified, and provided with some documentation.

23. What Are The Types Of Maintenance?

There are four types of maintenance. They are:

•Corrective Maintenance

•Adaptive Maintenance

•Perfective Maintenance

•Preventive Maintenance

24. What Are The Advantages Of Waterfall Model?

The advantages of the waterfall model are:

•Simple to implement and required fewer amounts of resources.

•After every phase output is generate.

•Help in methods of analysis, design, coding, testing and maintenance.

•Preferred in projects where quality is more important than schedule and cost.

•Systematic and sequential model.

•Proper documentation of the project.

25. What Is Rapid Application Development Model (rad)?

The RAD model Rapid Application development (RAD) is incremental software development process models that focus on the development of the project in very short time. It is enhanced version of Waterfall model. It is proposed when requirements and solutions can be made independently system or software components, which is developed by different teams. After these smaller system components are developed, they are integrated to produce the large software system solution.

26. What Are The Advantages Of Black Box Testing?

The advantages of this type of testing include:

•Developer and tester are independent of each other.

•The tester does not need knowledge of any programming languages.

•The test is done from the point-of-view of the user.

•Test cases can be designed when specifications are complete.

•Testing helps to identify issues related to functional specifications.

27. What Is Software Review?

A software review can be defined as a filter for the software engineering process. The purpose of any review is to discover errors in the analysis, design, and coding, testing and implementation phases of the software development cycle. The other purpose of a review is to see whether procedures are applied uniformly and in a manageable manner. It is used to check the process followed to develop the software is right.

28. What Is Reverse Engineering?

By analyzing a final product the process of recreating a design is known as reverse engineering. Reverse engineering is the process followed in order to find difficult, unknown, and hidden information about a software system. It is important when software products lack proper documentation, and are highly unstructured, or their structure has degraded through a series of maintenance efforts. Maintenance activities cannot be performed without a complete understanding of the software system.

29. What Is Data Flow Diagram?

The Data Flow Diagram gives us information of the flow of data within the application.

•The DFD can be used to analyze the design of the application.

•It is a graphical representation of the structure of the data.

•A developer draws context level DFD first showing interaction between the different components of the application.

•DFD help in developing the software by clarifying the requirements and major functionalities.

•DFDs show the flow of data through a system.

•It is an important modeling tool that allows us to picture a system as a network of functional processes.

30. What Is Exploratory Testing?

Exploratory testing: means testing an application without a test plan and test script. In exploring testing test explore the application on the basis on his knowledge. The tester has no knowledge about the application previously. He explores the application like an end user and try to use it. While using the application his main motive is to find the bugs which are in the application.

31. What Is Compatibility Testing?

Compatibility testing is a type of testing used to find out the compatibility between the application and platform on which application works, web browsers, hardware, operating systems etc. Good software must be compatible with different hardware, web browser and database.

32. What Is Srs And Brs Document?

Software Requirements Specification (SRS) is documented form of the requirement of the customer. It consists of all requirement of the customer regarding that software to be developed. The SRS document work as agreement between the company and the customer consisting of all functional and non functional requirements.

Business Requirement Specification (BRS) are the requirements as described by the business people. The business tells “what” they want for the application to do. In simple word BRS contain the functional requirement of the application.

33. Can You Explain V Model In Manual Testing?

V model: it is enhanced version of waterfall model where each level of the development lifecycle is verified before moving to next level. In this testing starts at the very beginning. By testing we mean verification by means of reviews and inspections, static testing. Each level of the development life - cycle has a corresponding test plan. A test plan is developed to prepare for the testing of the products of that phase. Be developing the test plans, we can also define the expected results for testing of the products for that level as well as defining the entry and exit criteria for each level.

34. What Is Concurrency Testing?

Concurrency Testing is used to know the effects of using the software by different users at the same time. In this type of testing we have multiple users performing the exact same requests at the same time. It helps in identifying and measuring the problems in Response time, levels of locking and deadlocking in the application. For this we use Load runner to create VUGen (Virtual User Generator) is used to add the number of concurrent users and perform operation on the application on the same time.

35. What Is An Inspection In Software Testing?

An inspection is more formalized than a walk through. Inspection technique involves 3 to 8 team member consisting of a moderator, reader, and a recorder to take notes. The subject of the inspection is typically a document such as a requirements or a test plan, and the purpose is to find problems and see what is missing, most problems will be found during this preparation. The result of the inspection meeting should be a written report. It is one of the most cost effective methods of ensuring quality.

36. A Form Has Four Mandatory Fields To Be Entered Before You Submit. How Many Numbers Of Test Cases Are Required To Verify This? And What Are They?

Five test cases are required to test:

1. Enter the data in all the mandatory fields and submit, should not display error message.

2. Enter data in any two mandatory fields and summit, should issue an error message.

3. Do not enter in any of the fields should issue an error message.

4. If the fields accept only number, enter numbers in the fields and submit, should not issue an error message, try to enter only in two fields should issue an error message, and enter alphabets in two fields and number in other two fields it should issue an error message.

5. If the fields do not accept special characters, then enter the characters and submit it.

37. What Is Cyclomatic Complexity?

Cyclomatic complexity is used to measure the complexity of the software using the control flow graph of the software. It is a graphical representation, consisting of following:

NODE: statement of the program is taken as node of the graph.

Edges: the flow of command is denoted by edges. Edges are used to connect two node , this show flow of control from one node to other node in the program.

Using this node and edges we calculate the complexity of the program. This determines the minimum number of inputs you need to test always to execute the program.

38. What Is The Key Difference Between Preventative And Reactive Approaches To Testing?

Preventative tests are designed early; reactive tests are designed after the software has been produced.

39. What Is The Purpose Of Exit Criteria?

The purpose of exit criteria is to define when a test level is completed.

40. When Is Used Decision Table Testing?

Decision table testing is used for testing systems for which the specification takes the form of rules or cause-effect combinations. In a decision table the inputs are listed in a column, with the outputs in the same column but below the inputs. The remainder of the table explores combinations of inputs to define the outputs produced.

41. What Is Risk-based Testing?

Risk-based Testing is the term used for an approach to creating a test strategy that is based on prioritizing tests by risk. The basis of the approach is a detailed risk analysis and prioritizing of risks by risk level. Tests to address each risk are then specified, starting with the highest risk first.

42. What Is Verification And Validation?

Verification: process of evaluating work-products of a development phase to determine whether they meet the specified requirements for that phase.

Validation: process of evaluating software during or at the end of the development process to determine whether it specified requirements.

43. What Is Monkey Testing?

Monkey testing is a type of Black Box Testing used mostly at the Unit Level. In this tester enter the data in any format and check the software is not crashing. In this testing we use Smart monkey and dumb monkey.

Smart monkeys are used for load and stress testing, they will help in finding the bugs. They are very expensive to develop.

Dumb monkey, are important for basic testing. They help in finding those bugs which are having high severity. Dumb monkey are less expensive as compare to Smart monkeys.

Example: In phone number filed Symbols are entered.

44. What Is Usability Testing?

Checking how easily the end users are able to understand and operate the application is called Usability Testing.

45. What Are The Phases Of A Formal Review?

A typical formal review process consists of six main steps:

Planning

Kick-off

Preparation

Review meeting

Rework

Follow-up

46. Describe Use Case Testing?

Use Case: A use case is a description of the process which is performed by the end user for a particular task. Use case contains a sequence of step which is performed by the end user to complete a specific task or a step by step process that describe how the application and end user interact with each other. Use case is written by the user point of view.

Use case Testing: the use case testing uses this use case to evaluate the application. So that, the tester can examines all the functionalities of the application. Use case testing cover whole application.

47. What Is Early Testing?

Conducting testing as soon as possible in development life cycle to find defects at early stages of SDLC.

Early testing is helpful to reduce the cost of fixing defects at later stages of STLC.

48. When Do We Prepare Rtm (requirement Traceability Matrix), Is It before Test Case Designing or after Test Case Designing?

It would be before test case designing. Requirements should already be traceable from Review activities since you should have traceability in the Test Plan already. This also would depend on the organization. If the organizations do test after development started then requirements must be already traceable to their source. To make life simpler use a tool to manage requirements.

49. What Is Negative Testing?

Testing Software with negative approach to check if system is not “showing error when not supposed to” and “not showing error when supposed to”.

50. What Is Equivalence Partitioning Testing?

Equivalence partitioning testing is a software testing technique which divides the application input test data into each partition at least once of equivalent data from which test cases can be derived.  By this testing method it reduces the time required for software testing.

51. What Is Risk-based Testing?

Risk-based Testing is the term used for an approach to creating a test strategy that is based on prioritizing tests by risk. The basis of the approach is a detailed risk analysis and prioritizing of risks by risk level. Tests to address each risk are then specified, starting with the highest risk first.

52. What Is Verification And Validation?

Verification: process of evaluating work-products of a development phase to determine whether they meet the specified requirements for that phase.

Validation: process of evaluating software during or at the end of the development process to determine whether it specified requirements.

53. What Is Monkey Testing?

Monkey testing is a type of Black Box Testing used mostly at the Unit Level. In this tester enter the data in any format and check the software is not crashing. In this testing we use Smart monkey and dumb monkey.

Smart monkeys are used for load and stress testing, they will help in finding the bugs. They are very expensive to develop.

Dumb monkey, are important for basic testing. They help in finding those bugs which are having high severity. Dumb monkey are less expensive as compare to Smart monkeys.

Example: In phone number filed Symbols are entered.

54. What Is Usability Testing?

Checking how easily the end users are able to understand and operate the application is called Usability Testing.

55. What Are The Phases Of A Formal Review?

A typical formal review process consists of six main steps:

Planning

Kick-off

Preparation

Review meeting

Rework

Follow-up

56. Describe Use Case Testing?

Use Case: A use case is a description of the process which is performed by the end user for a particular task. Use case contains a sequence of step which is performed by the end user to complete a specific task or a step by step process that describe how the application and end user interact with each other. Use case is written by the user point of view.

Use case Testing: the use case testing uses this use case to evaluate the application. So that, the tester can examines all the functionalities of the application. Use case testing cover whole application.

57. What Is Early Testing?

Conducting testing as soon as possible in development life cycle to find defects at early stages of SDLC.

Early testing is helpful to reduce the cost of fixing defects at later stages of STLC.

58. When Do We Prepare Rtm (requirement Traceability Matrix), Is It before Test Case Designing or after Test Case Designing?

It would be before test case designing. Requirements should already be traceable from Review activities since you should have traceability in the Test Plan already. This also would depend on the organization. If the organizations do test after development started then requirements must be already traceable to their source. To make life simpler use a tool to manage requirements.

59. What Is Negative Testing?

Testing Software with negative approach to check if system is not “showing error when not supposed to” and “not showing error when supposed to”.

60. What Is Equivalence Partitioning Testing?

Equivalence partitioning testing is a software testing technique which divides the application input test data into each partition at least once of equivalent data from which test cases can be derived.  By this testing method it reduces the time required for software testing.

61. What Is A Bug?

A computer bug is an error, flaw, mistake, failure, or fault in a computer program that prevents it from working correctly or produces an incorrect result.

62. What Is A Test Case?

Test case is set of input values, execution preconditions, expected results and execution Post conditions, developed for a particular objective or test conditions, such as to exercise a particular program path or to verify compliance with a specific requirement.

63. What Is The Purpose Of Test Plan In Your Project?

Test plan document is prepared by the test lead, it contains the contents like introduction, objectives, test strategy, scope, test items, program modules user procedures, features to be tested features not to tested approach, pass or fail criteria, testing process, test deliverables, testing, tasks, responsibilities, resources, schedule, environmental requirements, risks & contingencies, change management procedures, plan approvals, etc all these things help a test manager understand the testing he should do & what he should follow for testing that particular project.

64. When The Relationships Occur Between Tester And Developer?

Developer is the one who sends the application to the tester by doing all the necessary code in the application and sends the marshal id to the tester. The tester is the one who gives all the input/output and checks whether he is getting required output or not. A developer is the one who works on inside interfacing where as the tester is the one who works on outside interfacing.

65. When Testing Will Starts In A Project?

The testing is not getting started after the coding. After release the build the testers perform the smoke test. Smoke test is the first test which is done by the testing team. This is according to the testing team. But, before the releasing of a build the developers will perform the unit testing.

66. If a Bug Has High Severity Then Usually That Is Treated As High Priority, Then Why Do Priority Given By Test Engineers/project Managers And Severity Given By Testers?

High severity bugs affects the end users .testers tests an application with the users point of view, hence it is given as high severity. High priority is given to the bugs which affects the production. Project managers assign a high priority based on production point of view.

67. What Is The Difference Between Functional Testing And Regression Testing?

Functional testing is a testing process where we test the functionality/behavior of each functional component of the application. i.e. minimize button, transfer button, links etc.i.e we check what is each component doing in that application.

Regression testing is the testing the behavior of the application of the unchanged areas when there is a change in the build.i.e we check whether the changed requirement has altered the behavior of the unchanged areas. The impacted area may be the whole of the application or Some part of the application.

68. Do U Know About Integration Testing, How Does U Integrate Different Modules?

Integration testing means testing an application to verify the data flows between the modules. For example, when you are testing a bank application, in account balance it shows the 100$as the available balance. but in database it shows the 120$. Main thing is “integration done by the developers and integration testing done by the testers.”

69. How You Test Database And Explain The Procedure?

Database Testing is purely done based on the requirements. You may generalize a few features but they won’t be complete. In general we look at:

1. Data Correctness (Defaults).

2. Data Storage/Retrieval.

3. Database Connectivity (across multiple platforms).

4. Database Indexing.

5. Data Integrity.

6. Data Security.

70. What Are The Contents Of Frs?

F-Function Behaviors.

R-Requirements (Outputs) of the System that is defined.

S-Specification (How, What, When, Where, and Way it behavior’s).

FRS: Function Requirement Specification.

This is a Document which contains the Functional behavior of the system or a feature. This document is also known as EBS External Behavior Specification - Document. Or EFS External Function Specification.

71. What Is Meant By Priority And Severity?

Priority means “Importance of the defect wart customer requirement.”

Severity means “Seriousness of the defect wart functionality.”

72. Differentiate Between Qa And QC?

QA:

It is process oriented.

It evolves in entire process of software development.

Preventing oriented.

QC:

It is product oriented.

Work to examine the quality of product.

Deduction oriented.

73. Explain V-model For Testing?

Typical "V" shows Development Phases on the Left hand side and Testing Phases on the Right hand side.

1.         SRS/BRS User Acceptance.

2.         Analysis/Design System Testing.

3.         HLD Integration Testing.

4.         LLD Unit Testing.

5.         Coding.

74. Define Priority& Severity?

Severity: It is the impact of the bug on the application. Severity level should be set by tester. The Severity levels are: Low, Medium, and high, very high and Urgent. It is set by the tester and it cannot be changed.

1.         Bug causes system crash or data loss.

2.         Bug causes major functionality or other severe problems; product crashes in obscure cases.

3.         Bug causes minor functionality problems, may affect "fit and finish".

4.         Bug contains types, unclear wording or error messages in low visibility fields.

Priority: How important is it to fix the bug is priority. Priority levels are set by the team lead or test manager and it can be changed as required.

1.         Must fix as soon as possible. Bug is blocking further progress in this area.

2.         Should fix soon, before product release.

3.         Fix if time; somewhat trivial. May be postponed

75. What's The Value Of Doing Regression Testing?

Regression testing is initiated after a programmer has attempted to fix a recognized problem or has added source code to a program that may have inadvertently introduced errors. It is a quality control measure to ensure that the newly modified code still complies with its specified requirements and that unmodified code has not been affected by the maintenance activity.

76. Define Regression Testing?

The selective retesting of a software system that has been modified to ensure that any bugs have been fixed and that no other previously working functions have failed as a result of the reparations and that newly added features have not created problems with previous versions of the software. Regression is also referred to as verification testing.

77. What Are Two Benefits Of Manual Testing?

First, since there is no such an automated test tool could replace mankind intelligence, we need to use manual testing to cover the part that automated testing can't cover. Second, before the stable version comes out, manual testing is more effective than automated testing because automated testing may not be completed for system instability, crash for example.

78. What Are Two Benefits Of Automated Testing?

First, with high speed and efficiency, automated testing can release the manpower from the complicated and repeated daily tests to spare consumption and time. Second, with high accuracy, automated testing will never make a mistake just like mankind does under tiredness after long time testing.

79. How Much Testing Is 'enough'?

Testing work is unlimited, especially in large applications. The relatively enough testing is just to make application match product requirements and specifications very well, including functionality, usability, stability, performance and so on.

80. How Do You Know When To Stop Testing?

It’s hard to make a decision. Most of the modern applications are very complex and run in an interdependent circumstance, so the complete testing will never be done. However, there are some common factors for me to know when to stop testing, which are deadlines, test cases completed with certain percentage passed, test budget used up, coverage of functionality and requirements reaches a specified point, bug rate falls below the specified level, milestone testing ends and so on.

81. What Is TRM?

TRM means Test Responsibility Matrix. This is a vital reference document to ensure all the requirements are covered by at least one test case. It indicates mapping between test factors and development stages.

Test factors like: Ease of use, reliability, portability, authorization, access control, audit trail, ease of operates, maintainable etc.

Development stages like: Requirement gathering, Analysis, design, coding, testing, and maintenance.

82. What Makes A Good Test Engineer?

A good test engineer has a test to break attitude, an ability to take the point of view of the customer, a strong desire for quality, and an attention to detail. Tact and diplomacy are useful in maintaining a cooperative relationship with developers, and an ability to communicate with both.

83. What Is The Software Life Cycle?

The life cycle begins when an application is first conceived and ends when it is no longer in use. It includes aspects such as initial concept, requirements analysis, functional design, internal design, documentation planning, test planning, coding, document preparation, integration, testing, maintenance, updates, retesting, phase-out, and other aspects.

84. What Is Good Code?

Good code is code that works, is bug free, and is readable and maintainable. Some organizations have coding standards that all developers are supposed to adhere to, but everyone has different ideas about what’s best, or what is too many or too few rules. There are also various theories and metrics, such as McCabe Complexity metrics. It should be kept in mind that excessive use of standards and rules can stifle productivity and creativity. Peer reviews, buddy checks code analysis tools, etc. can be used to check for problems and enforce standards.

85. What Is Software Quality?

Quality software is reasonably bug-free, delivered on time and within budget, meets requirements and/or expectations, and is maintainable.

86. What Are 5 Common Problems In The Software Development Process?

A). Poor requirements - if requirements are unclear, incomplete, too general, or not testable, there will be problems.

b). Unrealistic schedule - if too much work is crammed in too little time, problems are inevitable.

c). Inadequate testing - no one will know whether or not the program is any good until the customer complaints or systems crash.

d). Futurities - requests to pile on new features after development is underway; extremely common.

e). Miscommunication - if developers don’t know what’s needed or customers have erroneous expectations, problems are guaranteed.

87. What Is An Inspection?

Inspection is more formalized than a walkthrough, typically with 3-8 people including a moderator, reader, and a recorder to take notes. The subject of the inspection is typically a document such as a requirements spec or a test plan, and the purpose is to find problems and see what’s missing, not to fix anything. Attendees should prepare for this type of meeting by reading through the document; most problems will be found during this preparation. The result of the inspection meeting should be a written report. Thorough preparation for inspections is difficult, painstaking work, but is one of the most cost effective methods of ensuring quality. Employees who are most skilled at inspections are like the eldest brother in the parable in Why is it often hard for management to get serious about quality assurance.

88. What Is A Walkthrough?

A walkthrough is an informal meeting for evaluation or informational purposes. Little or no preparation is usually required.

89. What Is Verification And Validation?

Verification: typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents, plans, code, requirements, and specifications. This can be done with checklists, issues lists, walkthroughs, and inspection meetings.

Validation: typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed. The term IV & V refers to Independent Verification and Validation.

90. Why Does Software Have Bugs?

Miscommunication or no communication - as to specifics of what an application should or shouldn't do (the applications requirements).

Software complexity - the complexity of current software applications can be difficult to comprehend for anyone without experience in modern-day software development. Windows-type interfaces, client-server and distributed applications, data communications, enormous relational databases, and sheer size of applications have all contributed to the exponential growth in software/system complexity. And the use of object-oriented techniques can complicate instead of simplify a project unless it is well-engineered.

Programming errors - programmers, like anyone else, can make mistakes.

Changing requirements (whether documented or undocumented) - the customer may not understand the effects of changes, or may understand and request them anyway - redesign, rescheduling of engineers, effects on other projects, work already completed that may have to be redone or thrown out, hardware requirements that may be affected, etc. If there are many minor changes or any major changes, known and unknown dependencies among parts of the project are likely to interact and cause problems, and the complexity of coordinating changes may result in errors.

Time pressures - scheduling of software projects is difficult at best, often requiring a lot of guesswork. When deadlines loom and the crunch comes, mistakes will be made.

Poorly documented code - it’s tough to maintain and modify code that is badly written or poorly documented; the result is bugs. In many organizations management provides no incentive for programmers to document their code or write clear, understandable, maintainable code. In fact, it’s usually the opposite they get points mostly for quickly turning out code, and there is job security if nobody else can understand it (if it was hard to write, it should be hard to read).

91. What Is Software Quality Assurance?

Software QA involves the entire software development PROCESS - monitoring and improving the process, making sure that any agreed-upon standards and procedures are followed, and ensuring that problems are found and dealt with. It is oriented to prevention.

92. What Is Software Testing?

Software Testing can be defines as under:-

•           Testing involves operation of a system or application under controlled conditions and evaluating the results (e.g., if the user is in interface A of the application while using hardware B, and does C, then D should happen). The controlled conditions should include both normal and abnormal conditions. Testing should intentionally attempt to make things go wrong to determine if things happen when they shouldn’t or things don’t happen when they should. It is oriented to detection.

•           Organizations vary considerably in how they assign responsibility for QA and testing. Sometimes they are the combined responsibility of one group or individual. Also common are project teams that include a mix of testers and developers who work closely together, with overall QA processes monitored by project managers. It will depend on what best fits an organizations size and business structure.

93. How Do You Introduce A New Software Qa Process?

It depends on the size of the organization and the risks involved. For large organizations with high-risk projects, a serious management buy-in is required and a formalized QA process is necessary. For medium size organizations with lower risk projects, management and organizational buy-in and a slower, step-by-step process is required. Generally speaking, QA processes should be balanced with productivity, in order to keep any bureaucracy from getting out of hand. For smaller groups or projects, an ad-hoc process is more appropriate. A lot depends on team leads and managers, feedback to developers and good communication is essential among customers, managers, developers, test engineers and testers. Regardless the size of the company, the greatest value for effort is in managing requirement processes, where the goal is requirements that are clear, complete and testable.

94. What Is The Role Of Documentation In Qa?

Documentation plays a critical role in QA. QA practices should be documented, so that they are repeatable. Specifications, designs, business rules, inspection reports, configurations, code changes, test plans, test cases, bug reports, user manuals should all be documented. Ideally, there should be a system for easily finding and obtaining of documents and determining what document will have a particular piece of information. Use documentation change management, if possible.

95. What Is A Test Plan?

A software project test plan is a document that describes the objectives, scope, approach and focus of a software testing effort. The process of preparing a test plan is a useful way to think through the efforts needed to validate the acceptability of a software product. The completed document will help people outside the test group understand the why and how of product validation. It should be thorough enough to be useful, but not so thorough that none outside the test group will be able to read it.

96. What Should Be Done After A Bug Is Found?

When a bug is found, it needs to be communicated and assigned to developers that can fix it. After the problem is resolved, fixes should be re-tested. Additionally, determinations should be made regarding requirements, software, hardware, safety impact, etc., for regression testing to check the fixes didn't create other problems elsewhere. If a problem-tracking system is in place, it should encapsulate these determinations. A variety of commercial, problem-tracking/management software tools are available. These tools, with the detailed input of software test engineers, will give the team complete information so developers can understand the bug, get an idea of its severity, reproduce it and fix it.

97. What Is Extreme Programming And What's It Got To Do With Testing?

Extreme Programming (XP) is a software development approach for small teams on risk-prone projects with unstable requirements. It was created by Kent Beck who described the approach in his book 'Extreme Programming Explained' .Testing ('extreme testing') is a core aspect of Extreme Programming. Programmers are expected to write unit and functional test code first - before the application is developed. Test code is under source control along with the rest of the code. Customers are expected to be an integral part of the project team and to help developed scenarios for acceptance/black box testing. Acceptance tests are preferably automated, and are modified and rerun for each of the frequent development iterations. QA and test personnel are also required to be an integral part of the project team. Detailed requirements documentation is not used, and frequent re-scheduling, re-estimating, and re-prioritizing is expected.

98. How Can World Wide Web Sites Be Tested?

Web sites are essentially client/server applications - with web servers and 'browser' clients. Consideration should be given to the interactions between html pages, TCP/IP communications, Internet connections, firewalls, applications that run in web pages (such as applets, JavaScript, plug-in applications), and applications that run on the server side (such as chi scripts, database interfaces, logging applications, dynamic page generators, asp, etc.). Additionally, there are a wide variety of servers and browsers, various versions of each, small but sometimes significant differences between them, variations in connection speeds, rapidly changing technologies, and multiple standards and protocols. The end result is that testing for web sites can become a major ongoing effort.

99. How Does a Client/server Environment Affect Testing?

Client/server applications can be quite complex due to the multiple dependencies among clients, data communications, hardware, and servers. Thus testing requirements can be extensive. When time is limited (as it usually is) the focus should be on integration and system testing. Additionally, load/stress/performance testing may be useful in determining client/server application limitations and capabilities. There are commercial tools to assist with such testing.

100. What If an Organization Is Growing So Fast That Fixed Qa Processes Are Impossible

This is a common problem in the software industry, especially in new technology areas. There is no easy solution in this situation, other than.

Hire good people.

Management should 'ruthlessly prioritize' quality issues and maintains focus on the customer.

Everyone in the organization should be clear on what 'quality' means to the customer.

101. How Can Qa Processes Be Implemented Without Stifling Productivity?

By implementing QA processes slowly over time, using consensus to reach agreement on processes, and adjusting and experimenting as an organization grows and matures; productivity will be improved instead of stifled. Problem prevention will lessen the need for problem detection, panics and burn-out will decrease, and there will be improved focus and less wasted effort. At the same time, attempts should be made to keep processes simple and efficient, minimize paperwork, promote computer-based processes and automated tracking and reporting, minimize time required in meetings, and promote training as part of the QA process. However, no one - especially talented technical types - likes rules or bureaucracy, and in the short run things may slow down a bit. A typical scenario would be that more days of planning and development will be needed, but less time will be required for late-night bug-fixing and calming of irate customers.

102. What If The Application Has Functionality That Wasn't In The Requirements?

It may take serious effort to determine if an application has significant unexpected or hidden functionality, and it would indicate deeper problems in the software development process. If the functionality isn't necessary to the purpose of the application, it should be removed, as it may have unknown impacts or dependencies that were not taken into account by the designer or the customer. If not removed, design information will be needed to determine added testing needs or regression testing needs. Management should be made aware of any significant added risks as a result of the unexpected functionality. If the functionality only effects areas such as minor improvements in the user interface, for example, it may not be a significant risk.

103. What Can Be Done If Requirements Are Changing Continuously?

A common problem and a major headache

Work with the project's stakeholders early on to understand how requirements might change so that alternate test plans and strategies can be worked out in advance, if possible.

It's helpful if the application's initial design allows for some adaptability so that later changes do not require redoing the application from scratch.

If the code is well-commented and well-documented this makes changes easier for the developers.

Use rapid prototyping whenever possible to help customers feel sure of their requirements and minimize changes.

The project's initial schedule should allow for some extra time commensurate with the possibility of changes.

Try to move new requirements to a 'Phase 2' version of an application, while using the original requirements for the 'Phase 1' version.

Negotiate to allow only easily-implemented new requirements into the project, while moving more difficult new requirements into future versions of the application.

Be sure that customers and management understand the scheduling impacts, inherent risks, and costs of significant requirements changes. Then let management or the customers (not the developers or testers) decide if the changes are warranted - after all, that's their job.

Balance the effort put into setting up automated testing with the expected effort required to re-do them to deal with changes.

Try to design some flexibility into automated test scripts.

Focus initial automated testing on application aspects that are most likely to remain unchanged.

Devote appropriate effort to risk analysis of changes to minimize regression testing needs.

Design some flexibility into test cases (this is not easily done, the best bet might be to minimize the detail in the test cases, or set up only higher-level generic-type test plans).

Focus less on detailed test plans and test cases and more on ad hoc testing (with an understanding of the added risk that this entails).

104. What If The Project Isn't Big Enough To Justify Extensive Testing?

Consider the impact of project errors, not the size of the project. However, if extensive testing is still not justified, risk analysis is again needed and the same considerations as described previously in 'What if there isn't enough time for thorough testing apply. The tester might then do ad hoc testing, or write up a limited test plan based on the risk analysis.

105. How Can It Be Known When To Stop Testing?

This can be difficult to determine. Many modern software applications are so complex, and run in such an interdependent environment, that complete testing can never be done. Common factors in deciding when to stop are:

Deadlines (release deadlines, testing deadlines, etc.).

Test cases completed with certain percentage passed.

Test budget depleted.

Coverage of code/functionality/requirements reaches a specified point .

Bug rate falls below a certain level.

Beta or alpha testing period ends.

106. What If The Software Is So Buggy It Can't Really Be Tested At All?

The best bet in this situation is for the testers to go through the process of reporting whatever bugs or blocking-type problems initially show up, with the focus being on critical bugs. Since this type of problem can severely affect schedules, and indicates deeper problems in the software development process (such as insufficient unit testing or insufficient integration testing, poor design, improper build or release procedures, etc.) managers should be notified, and provided with some documentation as evidence of the problem.

107. What Are The Levels Of Classified Access?

The levels of classified access are confidential, secret, top secret, and sensitive compartmented information, of which top secret is the highest.

108. What Is Security Clearance?

Security clearance is a process of determining your trustworthiness and reliability before granting you access to national security information.

109. How Do You Create A Test Strategy?

The test strategy is a formal description of how a software product will be tested. A test strategy is developed for all levels of testing, as required. The test team analyzes the requirements, writes the test strategy and reviews the plan with the project team. The test plan may include test cases, conditions, the test environment, a list of related tasks, pass/fail criteria and risk assessment.

Inputs for this process:

A description of the required hardware and software components, including test tools. This information comes from the test environment, including test tool data.

A description of roles and responsibilities of the resources required for the test and schedule constraints. This information comes from man-hours and schedules.

Testing methodology. This is based on known standards.

Functional and technical requirements of the application. This information comes from requirements, change request, technical and functional design documents.

Requirements that the system cannot provide, e.g. system limitations.

Outputs for this process:

An approved and signed off test strategy document, test plan, including test cases.

Testing issues requiring resolution. Usually this requires additional negotiation at the project management level.

110. What Is The General Testing Process?

The general testing process is the creation of a test strategy (which sometimes includes the creation of test cases), creation of a test plan/design (which usually includes test cases and test procedures) and the execution of tests.

111. What Is Software Testing Methodology?

One software testing methodology is the use a three step process of:

Creating a test strategy.

Creating a test plan/design and.

Executing tests.

This methodology can be used and molded to your organization's needs. Rob Davis believes that using this methodology is important in the development and ongoing maintenance of his clients' applications.

112. What Is A Test Schedule?

The test schedule is a schedule that identifies all tasks required for a successful testing effort, a schedule of all test activities and resource requirements.

113. What Is A Test Configuration Manager?

Test Configuration Managers maintain test environments, scripts, software and test data. Depending on the project, one person may wear more than one hat. For instance, Test Engineers may also wear the hat of a Test Configuration Manager.

114. What Is A Technical Analyst?

Technical Analysts perform test assessments and validate system/functional test requirements. Depending on the project, one person may wear more than one hat. For instance, Test Engineers may also wear the hat of a Technical Analyst.

115. What Is A Database Administrator?

Test Build Managers, System Administrators and Database Administrators deliver current software versions to the test environment, install the application's software and apply software patches, to both the application and the operating system, set-up, maintain and back up test environment hardware. Depending on the project, one person may wear more than one hat. For instance, a Test Engineer may also wear the hat of a Database Administrator.

116. What Is A System Administrator?

Test Build Managers, System Administrators, Database Administrators deliver current software versions to the test environment, install the application's software and apply software patches, to both the application and the operating system, set-up, maintain and back up test environment hardware. Depending on the project, one person may wear more than one hat. For instance, a Test Engineer may also wear the hat of a System Administrator.

117. What Is A Test Build Manager?

Test Build Managers deliver current software versions to the test environment, install the application's software and apply software patches, to the application and the operating system, set-up, maintain and back up test environment hardware. Depending on the project, one person may wear more than one hat. For instance, a Test Engineer may also wear the hat of a Test Build Manager.

118. What Is A Test Engineer?

We, test engineers, are engineers who specialize in testing. We, test engineers, create test cases, procedures, scripts and generate data. We execute test procedures and scripts, analyze standards of measurements, and evaluate results of system/integration/regression testing. We also:

Speed up the work of the development staff.

Reduce your organization's risk of legal liability.

Give you the evidence that your software is correct and operates properly.

Improve problem tracking and reporting.

Maximize the value of your software.

Maximize the value of the devices that use it;

Assure the successful launch of your product by discovering bugs and design flaws, before users get discouraged, before shareholders lose their cool and before employees get bogged down.

Help the work of your development staff, so the development team can devote its time to build up your product.

Promote continual improvement.

Provide documentation required by FDA, FAA, other regulatory agencies and your customers.

Save money by discovering defects 'early' in the design process, before failures occur in production, or in the field.

Save the reputation of your company by discovering bugs and design flaws before bugs and design flaws damage the reputation of your company.

119. What Testing Roles Are Standard On Most Testing Projects?

Depending on the organization, the following roles are more or less standard on most testing projects: Testers, Test Engineers, Test/QA Team Lead, Test/QA Manager, System Administrator, Database Administrator, Technical Analyst, Test Build Manager and Test Configuration Manager.

120. What Is a Test/qa Team Lead?

The Test/QA Team Lead coordinates the testing activity, communicates testing status to management and manages the test team.

121. What Is Beta Testing?

Beta testing is testing an application when development and testing are essentially completed and final bugs and problems need to be found before the final release. Beta testing is typically performed by end-users or others, not programmers, software engineers, or test engineers.

122. What Is Alpha Testing?

Alpha testing is testing of an application when development is nearing completion. Minor design changes can still be made as a result of alpha testing. Alpha testing is typically performed by a group that is independent of the design team, but still within the company, e.g. in-house software test engineers, or software QA engineers.

123. What Is Acceptance Testing?

Acceptance testing is black box testing that gives the client/customer/project manager the opportunity to verify the system functionality and usability prior to the system being released to production.

The acceptance test is the responsibility of the client/customer or project manager; however, it is conducted with the full support of the project team. The test team also works with the client/customer/project manager to develop the acceptance criteria.

124. What Is Comparison Testing?

Comparison testing is testing that compares software weaknesses and strengths to those of competitor’s products.

125. What Is Compatibility Testing?

Compatibility testing is testing how well software performs in a particular hardware, software, operating system, or network

126. What Is Recovery/error Testing?

Recovery/error testing is testing how well a system recovers from crashes, hardware failures, or other catastrophic problems.

127. What Is Security/penetration Testing?

Security/penetration testing is testing how well the system is protected against unauthorized internal or external access, or willful damage. This type of testing usually requires sophisticated testing techniques.

128. What Is Installation Testing?

Installation testing is testing full, partial, upgrade, or install/uninstall processes. The installation test for a release is conducted with the objective of demonstrating production readiness.

This test includes the inventory of configuration items, performed by the application's System Administration, the evaluation of data readiness, and dynamic tests focused on basic system functionality. When necessary, a sanity test is performed, following installation testing.

129. What Is Load Testing?

Load testing is testing an application under heavy loads, such as the testing of a web site under a range of loads to determine at what point the system response time will degrade or fail.

130. What Is Performance Testing?

Although performance testing is described as a part of system testing, it can be regarded as a distinct level of testing. Performance testing verifies loads, volumes and response times, as defined by requirements.

131. What Is Sanity Testing?

Sanity testing is performed whenever cursory testing is sufficient to prove the application is functioning according to specifications. This level of testing is a subset of regression testing. It normally includes a set of core tests of basic GUI functionality to demonstrate connectivity to the database, application servers, printers, etc.

132. What Is Regression Testing?

The objective of regression testing is to ensure the software remains intact. A baseline set of data and scripts is maintained and executed to verify changes introduced during the release have not "undone" any previous code. Expected results from the baseline are compared to results of the software under test. All discrepancies are highlighted and accounted for, before testing proceeds to the next level.

133. What Is End-to-end Testing?

Similar to system testing, the macro end of the test scale is testing a complete application in a situation that mimics real world use, such as interacting with a database, using network communication, or interacting with other hardware, application, or system.

134. What Is System Testing?

System testing is black box testing, performed by the Test Team, and at the start of the system testing the complete system is configured in a controlled environment. The purpose of system testing is to validate an application's accuracy and completeness in performing the functions as designed. System testing simulates real life scenarios that occur in a "simulated real life" test environment and test all functions of the system that are required in real life. System testing is deemed complete when actual results and expected results are either in line or differences are explainable or acceptable, based on client input.

135. What Is Integration Testing?

Upon completion of unit testing, integration testing begins. Integration testing is black box testing. The purpose of integration testing is to ensure distinct components of the application still work in accordance to customer requirements. Test cases are developed with the express purpose of exercising the interfaces between the components. This activity is carried out by the test team. Integration testing is considered complete, when actual results and expected results are either in line or differences are explainable/acceptable based on client input.

136. What Is Parallel/audit Testing?

Parallel/audit testing is testing where the user reconciles the output of the new system to the output of the current system to verify the new system performs the operations correctly.

137. What Is Incremental Integration Testing?

Incremental integration testing is continuous testing of an application as new functionality is recommended. This may require that various aspects of an application's functionality are independent enough to work separately, before all parts of the program are completed, or that test drivers are developed as needed. Incremental testing may be performed by programmers, software engineers, or test engineers.

138. What Is Usability Testing?

Usability testing is testing for 'user-friendliness'. Clearly this is subjective and depends on the targeted end-user or customer. User interviews, surveys, video recording of user sessions and other techniques can be used. Programmers and developers are usually not appropriate as usability testers.

139. What Is Functional Testing?

Functional testing is black-box type of testing geared to functional requirements of an application. Test engineers should perform functional testing.

140. What Is Unit Testing?

Unit testing is the first level of dynamic testing and is first the responsibility of developers and then that of the test engineers. Unit testing is performed after the expected test results are met or differences are explainable/acceptable.

141. What Is White Box Testing?

White box testing is based on knowledge of the internal logic of an application's code. Tests are based on coverage of code statements, branches, paths and conditions.

142. What Is Black Box Testing?

Black box testing is functional testing, not based on any knowledge of internal software design or code. Black box testing are based on requirements and functionality.

143. What Is Quality Assurance?

Quality Assurance ensures all parties concerned with the project adhere to the process and procedures, standards and templates and test readiness reviews.

144. How Is Testing Affected By Object-oriented Designs?

A well-engineered object-oriented design can make it easier to trace from code to internal design to functional design to requirements. While there will be little affect on black box testing (where an understanding of the internal design of the application is unnecessary), white-box testing can be oriented to the application's objects. If the application was well designed this can simplify test design.

145. Why Do You Recommend That We Test During The Design Phase?

Because testing during the design phase can prevent defects later on. We recommend verifying three things:

Verify the design is good, efficient, compact, testable and maintainable.

Verify the design meets the requirements and is complete (specifies all relationships between modules, how to pass data, what happens in exceptional circumstances, starting state of each module and how to guarantee the state of each module).

Verify the design incorporates enough memory, I/O devices and quick enough runtime for the final product.

146. What If The Organization Is Growing So Fast That Fixed Qa Processes Are Impossible?

This is a common problem in the software industry, especially in new technology areas. There is no easy solution in this situation, other than:

Hire good people.

Ruthlessly prioritize quality issues and maintain focus on the customer.

Everyone in the organization should be clear on what quality means to the customer.

147. How Can Software Qa Processes Be Implemented Without Stifling Productivity?

Implement QA processes slowly over time. Use consensus to reach agreement on processes and adjust and experiment as an organization grows and matures. Productivity will be improved instead of stifled. Problem prevention will lessen the need for problem detection. Panics and burnout will decrease and there will be improved focus and less wasted effort.

At the same time, attempts should be made to keep processes simple and efficient, minimize paperwork, promote computer-based processes and automated tracking and reporting, minimize time required in meetings and promote training as part of the QA process.

However, no one, especially talented technical types, like bureaucracy and in the short run things may slow down a bit. A typical scenario would be that more days of planning and development will be needed, but less time will be required for late-night bug fixing and calming of irate customers.

148. What Is Acceptance Testing?

Testing conducted to enable a user/customer to determine whether to accept a software product. Normally performed to validate the software meets a set of agreed acceptance criteria.

149. What Is Accessibility Testing?

Verifying a product is accessible to the people having disabilities (deaf, blind, mentally disabled etc.).

150. What Is Ad Hoc Testing?

A testing phase where the tester tries to 'break' the system by randomly trying the system's functionality. Can include negative testing as well.

151. What Is Agile Testing?

Testing practice for projects using agile methodologies, treating development as the customer of testing and emphasizing a test-first design paradigm. See also Test Driven Development.

152. What Is Application Binary Interface (abi)?

A specification defining requirements for portability of applications in binary forms across different system platforms and environments.

153. What Is Application Programming Interface (api)?

A formalized set of software calls and routines that can be referenced by an application program in order to access supporting system or network services.

154. What Is Automated Software Quality (asq)?

The use of software tools, such as automated testing tools, to improve software quality.

155. What Is Automated Testing?

Testing employing software tools which execute tests without manual intervention. Can be applied in GUI, performance, API, etc. testing. The use of software to control the execution of tests, the comparison of actual outcomes to predicted outcomes, the setting up of test preconditions, and other test control and test reporting functions.

156. What Is Backus-naur Form?

A met language used to formally describe the syntax of a language.

157. What Is Basic Block?

A sequence of one or more consecutive, executable statements containing no branches.

158. What Is Basis Path Testing?

A white box test case design technique that uses the algorithmic flow of the program to design tests.

159. What Is Basis Set?

The set of tests derived using basis path testing.

160. What Is Baseline?

The point at which some deliverable produced during the software engineering process is put under formal change control.

161. What Is Binary Portability Testing?

Testing an executable application for portability across system platforms and environments, usually for conformation to an ABI specification.

162. What Is Bottom Up Testing?

An approach to integration testing where the lowest level components are tested first, then used to facilitate the testing of higher level components. The process is repeated until the component at the top of the hierarchy is tested.

163. What Is Boundary Testing?

Test which focus on the boundary or limit conditions of the software being tested. (Some of these tests are stress tests).

164. What Is Defect?

If software misses some feature or function from what is there in requirement it is called as defect.

165. What Is Boundary Value Analysis?

BVA is similar to Equivalence Partitioning but focuses on "corner cases" or values that are usually out of range as defined by the specification. his means that if a function expects all values in range of negative 100 to positive 1000, test inputs would include negative 101 and positive 1001.

166. What Is Branch Testing?

Testing in which all branches in the program source code are tested at least once.

167. What Is Breadth Testing?

A test suite that exercises the full functionality of a product but does not test features in detail.

168. What Is Cast?

Computer Aided Software Testing.

169. What Is Capture/replay Tool?

A test tool that records test input as it is sent to the software under test. The input cases stored can then be used to reproduce the test at a later time. Most commonly applied to GUI test tools.

170. What Is Cmm?

The Capability Maturity Model for Software (CMM or SW-CMM) is a model for judging the maturity of the software processes of an organization and for identifying the key practices that are required to increase the maturity of these processes.

171. What Is Cause Effect Graph?

A graphical representation of inputs and the associated outputs effects which can be used to design test cases.

172. What Is Code Complete?

Phase of development where functionality is implemented in entirety bug fixes are all that are left. All functions found in the Functional Specifications have been implemented.