WebSphere Interview Questions

WebSphere Interview Questions


1. Explain About Web Sphere?

The word web sphere popularly refers to IBM middleware technology products. Web sphere is known for its turnkey operation in e business applications. It has run time components and tools which can help in creating applications which run on WAS. WAS refers to web sphere application server.

2. Explain About Web Sphere Commerce?

IBM web sphere commerce has a single platform which offers complete ecommerce solutions to developers. It can be very productive if you are planning to do business with consumers, business and indirectly through channel partners. This can be used to perform business with consumers, business and channel partners altogether.

3. Detail about The Architecture Of Web Sphere?

Web Sphere is built on three main components they are

• Database

• J2EE application server

• A web server

The databases which it supports are

• DB2

• Oracle

• Cloudscape

Application server is IBMWAS and the supported web servers are

• IBM server

• Microsoft IIS

• Sun web server.

4. State Some Of The Features Present In Web Sphere?

Some of the features which are present in web sphere are: -

• Order management

• Web sphere commerce accelerator

• Analytical and business intelligence

• Open standards such as Java, EJB, etc

• Web sphere commerce payments and customer care, etc.

5. Explain About Ibm Web Sphere Edge Server?

Web sphere edge server is used to improve the performance of web based systems. It can be used as forward or proxy server. Basically four components are present in the web sphere they are Network dispatcher, Caching proxy, Content distribution and application service at the edge.

6. Explain About Extended Deployment?

Web sphere application server extended deployment increases the functionality of the server in two main areas they are manageability and performance. Dynamic virtualization between servers is possible with the help of XD. A stand-alone distributed cache was added to it under the performance header, it is known as Object Grid.

7. Explain About The Security Features Present In Was?

Security model for web sphere is primarily based on JAVA EE security model. It also depends upon the operating system. User authentication and authorization mechanisms are also provided in WAS. Light weight third party authentication mechanism is the main security feature present in WAS.

8. Explain About Asymmetric Clustering?

Asymmetric clustering applications are primarily used in electronic trading systems employed in banks. Some of the features are, partitions can be declared during run time and are usually run on a single cluster at a time. Work specific to a particular can be routed to that cluster.

9. Explain The Various Administrator Benefits Using Web Sphere?

Web sphere almost reduces the work of server administrator as he can manage load on servers efficiently without any hassles. It also gives him flexibility to divide the load and applications among different server farms. He can also predict about the incoming load on servers. Email alerts, restart options, memory leak detection, etc.

10. Explain About Caching Proxy Of Ibm Web Sphere Edge Sphere?

A caching proxy can be configured in forward direction or as a proxy. Content requested by the user is cached by edge before sending or adhering to the query. Page fragments arising from JSP or servlets are cached by Edge and the caching process is slow. Performance and scalability of J2EE applications can be increased by edge.

11. Explain About the Network Deployment Feature Present In Was?

Managing singletons will be a thing of the past and it also provides hot recovery of singletons which makes you forget about your GC collected singletons. Transaction logs can stored on a shared file system. For clustering run time operations deployment manager`s role was eliminated. J2EE failover support and cell configuration support is also present.

12. Explain About Ibm Web Sphere Integration Developer?

Web sphere integration developer provides an IDE to build applications based on service oriented architecture. Web sphere process server and web sphere ESB were built with WID. WID was built with RAD Eclipse based technology.

13. Explain About Compute Grid?

Compute grid is also known as Web sphere batch. Web sphere extended deployment offers a Java batch processing system called as Compute Grid. This forms an additional feature to Web sphere network environment. Various features are provided which help a developer to create, manage and execute batch jobs. Job scheduler, xJCL, batch container and batch programming controller.

14. Explain About Web Sphere Mq Real Time Transport?

This feature is very useful in instant messaging across different clients through intranet and internet. This supports high volume and high performance across different clients. It uses the concept of light weight transport which is again based on IP rather than the queue process.

15. Explain About Web Sphere Mq Jms Provider?

Web sphere MQ and Web Sphere Business integration manager Broker are very useful in providing Java messaging services to wide range of clients (publisher –subscribe, point to point). Java classes are chiefly responsible for translating the API calls to API`s defined by web sphere. It is very useful to have knowledge of Web sphere MQ for proper configuration.

16. Explain The Attribute Channel In Web Sphere Mq?

 

CHANNEL specifies the name of the server connection channel. Generally this is Web Sphere MQ network abstraction. The default standard used by CHANNEL is SVRCONN which is the server connection channel. This server is generally used to communicate to the queue manager by the client.

17. Is The Naming Of Connection Factory Independent Of The Name Specified By Jms Client?

Yes, the naming of connection factory is independent of the name specified by JMS client. This is made possible by WAS (Web sphere application server) with its resource references. It isolates the application from object names. This feature is important because it gives us the flexibility to change the administered object without changing the JMS client code.

18. What About Master Repository?

Deployment manager contains the MASTER configuration and application files. All updates to the configuration files should go through the deployment manager.

19. Tell Me Ihs Executable Files, Means Bin Directory Files?

Apache, Apache Monitor, htpasswd, htdigest, htdbm, ldapstash, httpd.exe

20. Why Given The Httpd.conf File To Installation Of Plug-in?

Identify the web server (port, virtual hosts) to configure the web server definition.

21. How to Configure Remote System Httpd.conf File?

Select web server machine (remote).

22. Several Types of Log Files In The Appserver?

System out, system err, trace, native out, native err, activity.

23. Websphere Packages?

Express, base, network deployment.

24. What Is The Profile?

Profiles are a set of files that represent a web sphere application server configuration.

25. What Is The Trace?

 

A trace is an informational record that is intended for service engineers or developers to use. As such, a trace record might be considerably more complex, verbose and detailed than a message entry.

26. What Is Heap Memory?

Objects storage space for objects references created at run time in a jvm is heap memory.

27. Out Of Memory Exception Is There, How To Handle That Exception?

To increase heap memory size.

28. What About Ihs?

IHS (IBM HTTP Server) is one of the web servers. It serves the static content only and it takes up only http requests.

29. What About Plug-in?

Plug-in is one of the modules it is interface between application server and web server, the plug-in process receives the request from the client first. If the request is for dynamic content, the plug-in diverts the request to the websphere application server. If the request is for static content, the plug-in forwards it to the Http server.

30. What Is The Global Security?

It provides the authentication and authorization for websphere application server domain (administration client or console).

31. How to Configure the Global Security?

Open console and then select security option in the right side menu, and then select localOs registry in the user registry, then enter the username, passwords. And again select global security then ltpa option then provide the password, then save the configuration. And restart the deployment server and then relogin the console.

32. What Is Ssl?

ssl is a protocol for providing encrypted data communications between two processes.

33. What Is Pmi? How To Configure Pmi?

 

Monitoring and tuning–>PMI–>select any process (server1, node agent, dmgr) and then enable PMI–>then apply and then save. Select performance viewer–>current activity and then select enabled process and click the start monitoring button after that process select.

34. What Is The UNIX Command Of All Display Server Processes?

ps –ef| grep java

35. What Is Node?

Logical group of servers.

36. How to Start the Server?

startserver.sh server1.

37. How You Get Node agent? What You Have To Install To Get Node agent?

Custom Profile.

38. How to Add the Node?

addnode.sh 8879

39. What Is The Application Server?

The application server provides a runtime environment in which to deploy, manage, and run j2ee applications.

40. What Is The Node?

A node corresponds to a physical computer system with a distinct IP host address. The node name is usually the same as the host name for the computer.

41. How Many Types Of Profiles Are In Nd Product?

1. Deployment manager profiles 2.application server profiles 3.custom profile.

42. What Is Difference B/w Dmgr And Other Profiles?

dmgr app custom:

its used for administration

admin console is there

plain node purpose of remaining profiles

initially one app server there

empty node

it supports the distributed

work independently environment.

 Put applications

it is not included app server

admin console is there

work independently

do not put applications.

43. Diff B/w 5.0 And 6.0?

Web Sphere Studio 3.5, comes up with Visual Age for Java. WSAD 5.0 supports J2EE 1.3 java specifications. RAD 6.0 supports J2EE 1.4 and integrated with Eclipse 3.0, UML Visual Editor, Tomcat Jakarta, Ant scripting, EJB universal test client and SOA tools.

44. What Is The Difference Between Web Server And Application Server?

Webserver serves pages for viewing in web browser, application server provides exposes business logic for client applications through various protocols

Webserver exclusively handles http requests. Application server serves business logic to application programs through any number of protocols.

Webserver delegation model is fairly simple, when the request comes into the webserver, it simply passes the request to the program best able to handle it(Server side program). It may not support transactions and database connection pooling.

Application server is more capable of dynamic behavior than webserver. We can also configure application server to work as a webserver. Simply application server is a superset of webserver.

45. Diff B/w Weblogic and Websphere?

Both BEA Weblogic and IBM’s WebSphere provide J2EE based application servers which are competitors. WebSphere leverages more on connectivity issues with MQ and legacy systems with strong dominance in J2EE.

46. Some Problem Is There In Web Server, So This Information Which Log File Contain?

http.log, plugin.log

47. What Is Jdbc?

Jdbc is a low level pure java api used to execute sql statements.

48. What Is Data source?

A data source is associated with a jdbc provider that supplies the specific jdbc driver implementation class.

49. What Is Diff B/w Type4 And Type2?

type4

1. It is pure java oriented

2. Require client side software

type2

1. it is not a pure java oriented driver

2. no need any client software.

50. Some Application Not Accessing, So What Is The Problem? This Information Which Log File Contains?

system out, system err

51. In Type3 Client Software Which Machine You Have Install?

Server side machine

52. Two Databases There (oracle And Db2),so I Want 3 Datasources For Oracle And 2 Data Sources For Db2 So Create 3 Datasource Names For Oracle And 2datasourcename For Db2 Is Possible Or Not?

Possible

53. What Is Jndi?

we can register resources in the application server’s java naming and directory interface (jndi) namespace. Client applications can then obtain the references to these resource objects in their programs.

54. Why Use The Boostrap Port Number?

Client applications use the bootstrap port to access websphere’s built-in object request broker (orb) to use enterprise java beans in applications installed on the application server. The java naming and directory interface service provider url used by the client application needs to reference the bootstrap port to obtain an initial context for looking up ejb’s it wants to use. (For communicate two servers)

55. What Are The Appserver Components?

Admin server, web container, ejb container,j2c service, naming server, messaging engine, security server.

56. Ldap Port Number?

389 or 636

57. Packages of Websphere?

Express, base, network deployment

58. What Is Web container?

The web container provides a runtime environment for servlets, jsp’s, java beans, and static content.

59. How to Find out Free Disk space From Command Prompt?

du -sk (kb) du -sm (mb)

60. How to Find Out Certain Server Configuration Details Like Port No, Server Name, Node Name, Pid?

Through admin console.

61. Configure the Plug-in Through Admin Console Is Possible Or Not?

 

Possible

62. Where to Set The Path?

Environments–>websphere variables

63. Application Installed But Not Working. What Are Troubleshooting Steps?

see jvm & application are up, check plugin-cfg.xml file for the root context used by the web application if it does not exist generate plugin and restart web server.

64. Applications Installed Fine, Also Generated Plugin, But Application Still Not Working, In This Case Which Log To See?

plugin.log

65. Default Admin Port?

9060, ssl 9043

66. Default Bootstrap Port?

2809

67. How To Hit Application Without Hitting The Web Server?

Web container port on application server.

68. In How Many Ways You Can Perform Administration?

Console,,,JMX

69. No of Ways Of Doing Deployments?

Admin console…..jython (jacl) scripts.

70. What Is Cell discovery address?

Node uses this port to talk to DMGR.

71. What Is Node discovery address?

DMGR uses this port to talk to node

72. How Websphere Discovers A Change In Jsp And Compiles It?

There is an algorithm that websphere uses to find the timestamp of .jsp and .class files. It checks that timestamp of .class file is always later than its corresponding .jsp file.

73. How Do You Specify A Jar File To Be Used By The Application, Consider That You Have Many Jar Files In Your System?

Class loader

74. What Is A Managed Node?

Node with an Node Agent.

75. What Is A Managed Webserver?

Remote webserver access through local (dmgr/cell)

76. When You Use Migration Wizard (pmt) For Websphere Application Server 8, do You Expect to Have All Profile Services up and Running Again?

No, migration wizard only provides minimal function and it does not enable any services by default.

76. In A Scenario Where An Administrator Needs To Migrate The Entire Application Server Profiles From V6.1 To V8 Using Profile Management Tool (pmt) And He Wants To Keep All Windows Services Created For These Profiles, How To Make Sure That These Windows Services Are Kept After Migration Process?

Administrator must create the new profile with a services enabled before starting the wizard, and then point to that profile during the migration wizard.

77. Assume That You Installed Was 6 After Was 8 On Your Server, Is It Then Possible To Migrate Was 6 Nodes To Was 8?

No, it will not work as WAS 8 should be installed after those earlier versions.

78. What Are The New Capabilities In Ibm Installation Manager V8?

Here is a list of new capabilities:

A single installation technology for installing and uninstalling product

Updating and rolling back fix packs and iFixes

Installing and uninstalling feature packs

GU interface to perform individual operations; response files can be recorded either from the GUI or created by specifying the appropriate XML file for silent installation purposes

Silent mode support for invoking multiple operations.

79. Can You Check On Installed Servers In “.nifregistry” File after Installing Was 8?

No, WAS 8 is no longer using this registry file.

80. Is It Possible To Install Websphere Application Server V5 Over System I Remotely?

No, you can’t as there is no GUI interface for version 5.

81. What May Cause Installation of Websphere Application Server over System I to be stopped Suddenly With No Log File Creation?

Undefined host name for your system i box

82. What May Cause Problem in Profile Creation?

Including special characters in your local host name may cause problem in profile creation.

83. How Can You Administer Your Application Server?

Application server can be administered using admin console and wsadmin.

84. Can You Federate A Profile Using Manage profiles Command Facility?

No, you can’t but you can delete a profile by manage profiles command facility.

85. Will There Be Any Problem In Installing The Application Server On A Target Platform Where It Has Been Done Before?

Yes, it will cause an unattended installation of the application server.

86. Can You Enable Sso For Application Server Over System I?

Yes, you can, during profile creation wizard.

87. Can You Federate A Node On System I Box Into Dmgr Over Windows/linux Platform?

Yes, you can, as long as system i box can be accessed through network.

88. Can You Use Iim For Installing Application Server 8 Over System I?

No, you can’t. You have to install it using QShell command line.

89. Can You Take A Copy Of Systemout.log Files Over System I While It Is Running?

No, you can’t as this file is locked by application server process.

90. Mention What Is The Difference Between Websphere And Weblogic?

Websphere is focused more on connectivity, integration, and web services.  It has better performance, rich implementation of J2EE, more extensive integration and transaction management compare to Weblogic.

Web logic has default transaction attributes as supports, while websphere does not have such type of the default transaction attribute.

91. Explain What Is A Connecting Pool?

Connecting pool is a cache of database connections maintained so that connection can be re-used when future requests to the database are required. If all the connections are occupied, a new connection is created and is added to the pool.

92. Mention What Sync Function Does In Websphere?

WAS (Webserver Application Server) stores the entire configuration in one central location referred as “Master Repository”. The sync ensures the configuration in both local and master repositories are same and in sync.

93. Mention How Many Ways You Can Deploy The Application In Websphere?

In Websphere application can be deployed in three ways

Copy files directly to deploy application folder in web sphere.

Use web sphere specific ant tasks create automated scripts for deploying application.

Via administration console.

94. Mention Which Resource Can Enhance Ears Support Apart From Shared Libraries And Data Sources?

Class loader policy, JAAS authentication aliases and virtual host information can enhance EARs support apart from EARs support and shared libraries.

95. Mention What Are The Websphere Mq Programming Apis?

Websphere MQ programming APIs include

AMI (Application Messaging Interface).

JMS (Java Message Service).

MQI (Message Queue Interface).

96. Mention What Functionality Does Caching Proxy Server Provides?

Caching server provides functionality like

Reverse proxy and content based routing.

Integration with servlet caching and dynamic content caching.

97. Explain How Caching Proxy Of Websphere On The Edge Server Is Done?

A caching proxy can be configured in forward direction or as a proxy. When user requests the content, it is cached by the edge before sending or following to the query.

Page fragments arising from Servlets or JSP are cached by Edge, and the Caching process becomes Slow.

Performance and scalability can be optimized by edge.

98. Explain What Is Websphere Edge Server?

The WebSphere edge server is used to enhance the performance of web based systems.  It can be used as a proxy server.  There are basically four components in the web sphere they are caching proxy, content distribution, and network dispatcher and application server at the edge.

99. Explain What Is Extended Deployment In Websphere?

The extended deployment in WebSphere leverages enhanced qualities of service with features optimizing IT resources. It spans three areas

WebSphere Virtual Enterprise.

WebSphere extreme Scale.

Compute Grid.

100. Explain What Is Sslpeer In Ibm Websphere Mq?

SSLPEER is a string usually distinguished name of MQ client, which links to queue Manager securely using queue Manager.  This is a mechanism used to identify client.

101. Explain What Is Queue manager In Ibm Websphere Mq?

Queue Manager is the important component of WebSphere MQ.  It is accountable for storing and routing messages to other queue manager within MQ, and it also communicate with the outside world.

102. Explain What Is Websphere Is Mq?

WebSphere MQ is an application program that allows you to communicate with each other using messages and queues.  This form of communication is referred as commercial messaging.  There are two methods for application to communicate, Request/Response and Fire & Forget.

103. Mention When Does Websphere Application Server Contact The Registry For User Information?

Web-sphere application server contact the registry for user when users

Checks the user’s password.

Maps certificate information to a use rid.

Converts use rid to registry uniqueid.

Obtains group information.

104. Mention What Are The Default Ports You Use To Use Websphere Application Sphere?

The default ports you use are HTTP: 9080 and HTTP: 9443.

105. Explain What Is A Cell In Websphere?

A cell is referred as a grouping of nodes into a single administrative domain. A cell can have multiple nodes which are all managed from a single point.

106. Explain What Is Node, Node Agent And Node Groups?

Node It is a logical grouping of server processes maintained by WebSphere and that share common configuration and operational control.

Nodeagent  Each node has a nodeagent that works along with the deployment manager to manage administration processes. It acts as a mediator between the node and deployment manager.

Node Group A node group is a grouping of nodes within a cell that have same capabilities.

108. Mention What Is Asymmetric Clustering In Web-sphere?

In asymmetric clustering, the partition can be defined dynamically and runs on a single cluster at a time. The task which is particular to an appropriate cluster can be routed to that cluster.  Usually, clustering is used by banks.

109. Mention What Type Of Files Are Required To Deploy An Application Into Websphere?

WAR or EAR files are required to deploy an application into Web-sphere.

110. Mention How Does A Websphere Or Any Application Server Clustering Work?

A WebSphere’s web server plugin component routes requests to WebSphere cluster web containers.   If there is a communication failure with a particular cluster member, it will mark that member down and start routing all requests to the remaining cluster member till the original is available.

111. Mention Some Of The Features Available In Web-sphere?

Some of the features available in Web-sphere include

It supports the servlet/JSP container functionality that runs on top of HTTP.

It supports HTTP servers as IBM HTTP server, Netscape iPlanet server, and MS IIS.

It supports Java Server Pages, HTML pages, Servlets and XML.

It supports EJB component model and Workload Management.

112. Mention What Are The Important Component Of Web-sphere?

Important components of Web-Sphere are

WebSphere Application Server or WAS: It connects the website users with Java servlets.

Data–Server: For data persistence.

Web–server: It provides the service of HTTP.

113. Explain What Is Web-sphere?

Web-sphere is a tool based on Java and developed by IBM, to manage and create websites.  Web-sphere is often used to build interactive web-oriented applications that support business functions required for e-commerce; it integrates all the data across different operating system and applications.

114. How Can Administrator Assign Java Ee 5 Security Permissions To Actual Users In Websphere Application Server?

The administrator can assign security permissions to actual users by mapping application roles to users or groups in the WebSphere user registry.

115. When Does Administrator Need To Create A Jdbc Provider?

If the administrator is implementing an application which requires a connection to the databasethen he needs to create a JDBC provider.

116. A Scenario Of A Network Deployment Cell Has One Cluster And An Application Uses Jms Client Required To Be Deployed To The Cluster, What Are The Required Steps To Be Followed By Administrator To Make Clients Able To Consume Messages?

The cluster must be added as a member to the Service Integration Bus (SIBus).

117. What Is The Required Configuration Information To Connect Jms Destination To Sibus?

JMS provider type, bus name and the bus destination.

118. State The Three Ways To Enable Verbose Gc.?

wsadmin script,

-verbose:gc commandline attribute and

-Xoptionsfile command line option.

119. Where Can Administrator Find Binding Information For An Application?

The administrator can find the binding information in the deployment descriptor.

120. In Order To Modify The Configuration Of An Enterprise Application, Through Which Components Can The System Admin Make Modification Using Wsadmin?

Job manager or deployment manager.

121. How To Protect Servlets In Java Ee Applications?

Servlets can be protected by method permissions.

122. Is It Possible To Manage Sibus Using Fine-grained Administrative Security?

No, SIBus messaging engine cannot be managed by fine-grained administration.

123. How To Remove The Application-scoped Resources From An Enhanced Ear File?

Application scoped resources can be removed from an enhanced EAR file by removing META—INF/ibmconfig directory.

124. How Can You Describe The Relationship Between A Flexible Management Topology And The Network Deployment Cell?

Flexible management topology can be an alternative to the network deployment cell.

125. How to Manage Multiple Stand-alone Application Servers On Different Hosts?

Multiple stand alone application servers can be managed by using a job manager through administrator agents.

126. What Is The Difference Between Long Running Process And Short Running Process?

Long running Process: A long running, where the process is specifically designed to complete swiftly. The process lifespan is deliberately, such that process versioning issues associated with longer running processes are avoided. Human tasks or in-process events may be present. Common uses are to handle “straight through processing” or to manage parallel aggregation.

Short Running Process: A short running BPEL process is to string together service invocations within one transaction, or where invocations are not transactional. Short running is also used as a preference for high performance since it does not need to perform persistence in-between steps of the process.

127. What Is The Stand For Bpel?

BPEL: Business Process Execution Language.

128. What Is Soa?

SOA: SOA is a Service Oriented Architecture. Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is a SOFTWARE DESIGN and software architecture design pattern based on structured collections of discrete software modules, known as services that collectively provide the complete functionality of a large software application. Purpose of SOA is to allow easy cooperation of a large number of computers that are connected over a network. Every computer can run an arbitrary number of programs – called services in this context – that are built in a way that they can exchange information with any other service within the reach of the network without human interaction and without the need to make changes to the underlying program itself.

129. What Is Sca?

SCA: Service Component Architecture (SCA) is a software technology created by major software vendors including IBM, Oracle and TIBCO. SCA provides a model for composing applications that follow Service-Oriented Architecture principles. The technology encompasses a wide range of disparate technologies and as such is specified in various independent specifications in order to maintain programming language and application environment neutrality.

130. What Is Human Task And How Many Type Of Human Tasks Are The In Wps?

Human Task: A human task is, quite simply, a unit of work done by a human. Quite often, this task involves the interaction with other services, and thus becomes a task within a larger business goal.

Types of Human Tasks:

1. To-Do Task: Service Create a work item for Human Interaction.

2. Invocation Task: Human Interaction Invokes a Service.

3. Collaboration Task: Human Interaction invokes a service which creates a work item for another human. Interaction between two humans.

 

4. Administrative task: This type of task grants a human administrative powers such as the ability to suspend, terminate, restart, force-retry, or force-complete a business process. Administrative tasks can be set up on either an invoke activity, or the process as a whole.

131. How Many Ways We Can Implement Human Task?

We can implement human task two ways.

1. In-Line Human Task: Aninline task is defined within an implementation of a business process. It can either be implemented directly in the process using a human task activity, or as a property of an invoke, pick, receive, event handler, or on message activity. When you are first planning your human task, you should model it as an inline task if any of the following conditions are present:

You need information from the process logic to execute human interaction

You want to execute administrative tasks

You want to define authorization rights on specific activities

2. Stand-alone Human Task: A stand-alone task exists independently of a business process, and implements human interaction as a service that can be used in many of the different components of the WebSphere Integration Developer family of tools. When you are first planning your human task, you should model it as a stand-alone task if any of the following conditions are present:

You do not need any information from the business process

The task provides just another service

132. What Is Business Rule? (or) What Component We Can Use For Runtime Changes In Wps?

A business rule is a representation of how business policies or practices apply to a business activity. It is anything that controls the behavior of, or imposes a structure on a business practice. A rule can enforce business policy, establish common guidelines within an organization, or control access in a business environment.

Business rules make business processes more flexible. Because business rules determine the outcome of a process based on a context, using business rules within a business process allows applications to respond quickly to changing business conditions.

133. What Is Escalation?

An escalation is a course of action that takes place when a human task does not reach an expected state (for example, ended) within a specified time period.

If you add more than one escalation to a human task, you can create one or more escalation chains to define the required escalation path or paths. You chain escalations by specifying that one escalation follow after another escalation. You can create parallel escalation chains by giving the first escalation in two or more escalation chains the same activation state.

134. What Is Event Handling And What The Use?

Event handlers enable a running business process to react to events that might be triggered by a partner. By definition, events occur independently and asynchronously. There may be zero or multiple events at any time.

Event handlers can be associated with either a scope or with the business process (Start activity i.e global scope). When a scope starts, all associated event handlers are enabled. The event handlers belonging to a scope are disabled when the scope ends. If the scope ends with a fault, the processing of the event handler is terminated.

There are two types of events:

Incoming messages that correspond to a WSDL operation. A status query or a cancellation is common examples of such events. A correlation must be specified for the incoming messages.

Alarms that go off after a user-defined period of time, or when a predefined point in time is reached. You can specify alarm events to repeat after a specified period of time.

135. What Is The Compensation In Wps And Usage?

Compensation of micro flows and long-running processes can be used to “undo” the outcome of service invocations that have already completed. It is used when choreographing non-transactional services. (If all the services were transactional, you could have them participate in a single transaction).

In long-running processes, compensation of activities that have successfully executed is initially triggered by a fault raised in the process, or can be explicitly triggered using a compensation activity. This is a useful technique for reversing the effects of already-committed transactions within a long-running process.

136. How Can We Handle Exceptions In Wps?

Faults are used to signal problems in BPEL business processes. They can be caught by a Catch or Catch All element in a fault handler. A Catch element specifies the fault that it catches by fault name and/or fault data. Unknown faults are caught by Catch All elements.

Fault handlers can be defined for invoke activities, for scopes, or for the complete business process. They catch faults that are thrown in their scope. If a fault is thrown in a scope, but is not caught by the fault handler of that scope, it is automatically re-thrown to the next enclosing scope. If a fault reaches the process level the process ends in the state failed after the associated fault handler was processed.

137. What Is Decision Table?

A decision table is a scheduled rule logic entry, in table format, that consists of conditions, represented in the row and column headings, and actions, represented as the intersection points of the conditional cases in the table. Decision tables are best suited for business rules that have multiple conditions. Adding another condition is done by simply adding another row or column.

Like the if/then rule set, the decision table is driven by the interaction of conditions and actions. The main difference is that in a decision table, the action is decided by more than one condition, and more than one action can be associated with each set of conditions. If the conditions are met, then the corresponding action or actions are performed.

138. What Is Correlation And How Can We Use?

Correlation sets are used to uniquely identify business processes using business data. If a message has to be delivered to a business process, correlation sets are used to identify the particular process instance with which the message is associated. (if it contains more than one receive activity).

A process must have a correlation set if it has more than one receive or pick activity.

A correlation set has a name and is defined by one or multiple properties. A property in turn has a name and a type. You can map a message parameter to a correlation property using a property alias.

139. What Is Rule Set Or Rule Group?

A rule set is a group of if/then statements or rules where the if is the condition and the then is the action of the rule. Rule sets are best suited for those business rules that have very few condition clauses.

140. What Is Business State Machine?

Business state machines are service components that allow you to represent business processes based on states and events instead of a sequential business process model.

Business state machines specify the sequences of states, responses, and actions that an object or an interaction goes through in response to events.

141. How Many Types Of Bindings Are The In Wps?

1. SCA: The SCA binding, which is the default, lets your service communicate with services in other SCA You use an import with an SCA binding to access a service in another SCA module. You use an export with an SCA binding to offer a service to other SCA modules.

2. Web service: A Web service binding lets you access an external service using interoperable SOAP messages and qualities of service. You can also use Web service bindings to include attachments as part of the SOAP message.

The Web service binding can use a transport protocol of either SOAP/HTTP      (SOAP over HTTP) or SOAP/JMS (SOAP over JMS). Regardless of the transport      (HTTP or JMS) used to convey the SOAP messages; Web service bindings always handle request/response interactions synchronously.

1. HTTP: The HTTP binding lets you access an external service using the HTTP protocol, where non-SOAP messages are used, or where direct HTTP access is required. This binding is used when you are working with Web services that are based on the HTTP model (that is, services that use well-known HTTP interface operations such as GET, PUT, DELETE, and so on).

2. EnterpriseJavaBeans (EJB): EJB bindings let SCA components interact with services provided by Java EE business logic running on a Java EE server.

3. EIS: The EIS (enterprise information system) binding, when used with a JCA resource adapter, lets you access services on an enterprise information system or make your services available to the EIS.

4. JMS bindings: Java Message Service (JMS), generic JMS, and WebSphere MQ JMS (MQ JMS) bindings are used for interactions with messaging systems, where asynchronous communication through message queues is critical for reliability.

An export with one of the JMS bindings watches a queue for the arrival of a message and asynchronously sends the response, if any, to the reply queue. An import with one of the JMS bindings builds and sends a message to a JMS queue and watches a queue for the arrival of the response, if any.

1. JMS: The JMS binding lets you access the WebSphere-embedded JMS provider.

2. Generic JMS: The generic JMS binding lets you access a non-IBM vendor messaging system.

3. MQ JMS: The MQ JMS binding lets you access the JMS subset of a WebSphere MQ messaging system. You would use this binding when the JMS subset of functions is sufficient for your application.

4. MQ: The WebSphere MQ binding lets you communicate with MQ native applications, bringing them into the service oriented architecture framework and providing access to MQ-specific header information. You would use this binding when you need to use MQ native functions.

142. What Is Selector?

A selector is a dispatch pattern you use to dynamically determine which implementation of a component to invoke at runtime. Like a rule group, a selector has date range entries, selection criteria, and a default destination. You select a destination in a selector the same as you would for a rule group. That is, when a selector is invoked, it selects a destination using the selection criteria and date range entries. A destination could be any service-oriented component.

One major difference between a selector and a rule group is that the destination of a selector can be any service component, while a destination in a rule group can be only a rule set or decision table. In other words, a selector can dynamically re-route a service call to any other component at runtime.

143. What Is Bpc and How Can It Will Be Useful?

BPC is a Business Process Choreography. It used for monitor Process Instance, Process Template and human task Instance, Human task Template.

144. What Are Import And Export And Difference?

An export allows exposing a service, so that the service can be called by a service requester.

An import allows calling a service.

Imports and exports have associated bindings that define the communication mechanism (for example, Web service bindings [SOAP/HTTP or SOAP/JMS]) and configuration that provides the details of the transport connection and the format of messages that flow on that connection.

Data bindings and data handlers are associated with import and export bindings to allow the message format to be configured.

EXPORT: Exports process incoming requests from outside SCA modules

IMPORT: Imports process outgoing requests to components outside SCA modules

BINDING: Binding determines how imports and exports interact with components outside a module

145. What Is Cei And How It Will Be Used?

 

CEI provides basic event-management services, including consolidating and persisting raw events from multiple, heterogeneous sources and distributing those events to event consumers. It provides functionality for generation, propagation, persistence, and consumption of events representing service component processes.